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The fifth chapter of Philip Renard‘s book Non-Dualism: Eastern Enlightenment in the World of Western Enlightenment explores in detail the five characteristics of of non-dualism.

According to Renard…

Just as I looked for the most appropriate and unifying term for the different forms of the direct way of liberation, and came to the term ‘non-dualism’, so I have also looked for the hallmarks with which non- dualism is inextricably connected. Marks that apply for all true, radical schools of non-dualism, and which highlight how non-dualism differs from other ways.

The five characteristics are:

  1. Awareness (chit)
  2. No-mind (& emptiness, shûnyatâ; conceptlessness)
  3. Immediacy (pratyaksha)
  4. Changelessness (kûtastha)
  5. Naturalness (sahaja)

Download the article for Philip Renard’s exploration.

Philip Renard was born in Amsterdam in 1944. After a period of studying the original teachings of Ch’an Buddhism, he started practicing his spiritual life in Subud (a Java based brotherhood), in which the surrender practice called latihangave him a foundation for all further insight, that is: freedom from concept or method. (See Philip’s website for more details about Philip and his work)


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